Exertional Heat Stroke
Heat stroke is a severe heat illness that occurs when a child's body creates more heat than it can release, due to the strain of exercising in the heat. This results in a rapid increase in core body temperature, which can lead to permanent disability, or even death, if left untreated.
Signs and Symptoms
- Increase in core body temperature, usually above 104°F/40°C (rectal temperature) when the child falls ill
- Central nervous system dysfunction, such as altered consciousness, seizures, confusion, emotional instability, irrational behavior or decreased mental acuity
Other possible indicators include:
- Nausea, vomiting or diarrhea
- Headache, dizziness or weakness
- Hot and wet or dry skin
- Increased heart rate, decreased blood pressure or fast breathing
- Call emergency medical services for immediate transport or locate medical personnel.
- Remove extra clothing or equipment. Begin whole-body cooling with a tub of cool water, fans, ice or cold towels (replaced frequently)
Heat camps are intense muscle spasms that occur after exercising for a while and losing large amounts of fluid and salt from sweating. While heat cramps are more common in children who perform in the heat, they can also occur when it's not hot (for example, during ice hockey or swimming).
Signs and Symptoms
- Intense pain (not associated with pulling or straining a muscle)
- Persistent muscle contractions that continue during and after exercise
- The child should be given a sports drink to help replace fluid and sodium losses.
- Light stretching, relaxation and massage of the cramped muscles may help.
Heat exhaustion is a moderate heat illness that occurs when a child continues to be physically active even after suffering from ill effects of the heat, like dehydration.
Signs and Symptoms
- Child finds it hard or impossible to keep playing
- Loss of coordination, dizziness or fainting
- Profuse sweating or pale skin
- Headache, nausea, vomiting or diarrhea
- Stomach/intestinal cramps or persistant muscle cramps
- Move child to a shaded or air-conditioned area
- Remove any extra clothing and equipment
- Cool the child with cold water, fans or cold towels (replace towels frequently)
- Have child lie comfortably with legs raised above heart level
- If the child is not nauseated or vomiting, have him or her drink chilled water or sports drink
- the child's condition should improve rapidly, but if there is little or no improvement, take the child for emergency medical treatment
Dehydration is when your body is low in fluids (water) because you are not drinking enough to replace what is lost through sweat. This can cause you to perform poorly in sports.
Did you know that if you are between eight to fourteen years of age you could lose up to a quart of seat during two hours of activity on a hot day? That is the same amount as a carton of milk.
You can do there things to stop this from happening to you...drink, drink and drink. That's right. Drink before, during, and after your activity.
You can tell if you are dehydrated if you have these symptoms:
- Thirst, dry mouth
- Dizziness, headache
- Being irritable or cranky
- Feel like throwing up
- Weak or tired.
What to you do if you begin to feel this way?
- Tell your athletic trainer or coach
- Take a time-out to rest
- Drink plenty of fluids
Your athletic trainer or coach will tell you when you are able to play again.
Proper precautions are needed to minimize the spread of communicable diseases and skin infections darning athletics.
Universal Hygiene Protocol for Sports
- Shower immediately after every competition and practice
- Wash all workout clothing after each practice
- Wash personal gear weekly
- Do not share towels or personal hygiene products
- Refrain from full body cosmetic shaving
Infectious Skin Diseases
- An appropriate health care professional should evaluate any skin lesion before returning to competition.
Blood-borne Infectious Diseases
- An athletic with any amount of blood should leave the activity until the bleeding has stopped.
- In the event of contaminated surfaces, everything must be cleaned and disinfected.
Other Communicable Diseases
- Appropriate vaccinations of athletes, coaches and staff as recommended by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC)
- During outbreaks, please follow the guidelines set forth by the CDC, as well as state and local health departments.
R.I.C.E. = Rest - Ice - Compression - Elevaton
Resting an injured area is necessary to allow the body time to get the effects of the trauma under control and to avoid additional stress and damage to the injured tissue. The period of rest required will vary depending on the severity of the injury (e.g. days to weeks). People who do not rest an acute (sudden or traumatic) injury can prolong the inflammation period and increase the healing time required, thereby delaying the recovery.
I = Ice
Ice applied promptly to an injury can slow or minimize some of the inflammation. The cold causes a closing of the arterioles in the tissue, which reduces bleeding. The local tissue metabolism slows reducing its need for oxygen and nutrients, and the nerve imposes are slowed considerably to reduce the pain that's felt, providing a numbing effect.
*Examples of ice treatment include using an ice bag or ice bucket for 15-20 minutes or ice massage for 7-10 minutes. Heat should only be applied after you are sure that the bleeding and swelling has stopped completely. Otherwise, an individual's recovery time will be delayed.
C = Compression
Compression is the application of an ace bandage or similar item around the injured area. This helps control swelling and provides mild support.
Note: Any wrap should be applied carefully. Too tight a bandage could constrict or interrupt vital circulation to the area.
E = Evaluation
This involves rising the injured area above the level of the heart as much as possible. This position promotes the lessening or elimination of swelling through the use of gravity and lymph drainage system.