Not being able to become pregnant despite having frequent unprotected sex for at least a year for most couples.


Infertility may result from medical conditions that are present at birth or develop later in life. Sometimes, a mix of factors prevents pregnancy. Risk factors for infertility include aging, using tobacco or alcohol, being over- or underweight, taking certain medicines, and being exposed to toxins such as pesticides and other chemicals in the environment.


With infertility, the main symptom is not getting pregnant. There may be no other clear symptoms. Some people may have irregular menstrual periods or no periods. Others may have certain symptoms of a hormonal condition, such as changes in hair growth or sexual function.


Infertility treatments include medicines that can help the ovaries make eggs or improve sperm count or quality. Procedures include placing sperm or fertilized eggs in the uterus. Sometimes, surgery is used to treat a medical condition that prevents pregnancy. Be sure to ask a health care professional about the benefits and risks of each treatment.